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Culture in 1066

Culture is an abstract representation of the ethnicity, language, and traditions of a province or character. Cultures are divided into culture groups, and cultures are considered closer to others within their group than to cultures outside it.

At game start, most realms will be relatively homogenous, with few realms containing more than one culture, and even fewer containing more than one culture group. However, as a realm expands, it will inevitably encounter other cultures and culture groups, which will give various penalties, both permanent and temporary.

Most cultures unlock cultural retinues and cultural buildings in castles, resulting in different army composition. Some cultures also unlock special events, decisions, government types or succession and gender laws. Some cultures also allow raiding, making them a potential menace to neighbours.

Most government types allows holding of tribes of the same culture with no penalties, except nomads.

Character culture[edit | edit source]

Every character in the game identifies with culture, and this affects their relations with other characters in the same realm. Within the same realm, characters have -5 opinion towards characters of other cultures, and -10 across culture groups (reduced by Tolerance Technology). In addition to affecting opinion, culture directly affects whether vassals will join independence and claimant factions. Cultural differences do not affect opinion between realms but do reduce willingness to accept offers of vassalization.

Cultures determine generated dynasty names and (along with religion) given names. Some cultures name realms after dynasties. If a dynasty controls multiple realms, only the head of the dynasty will do this, with other realms falling back to title names.

Graphical culture represents a character's ethnicity and ancestry. It is inherited from a random biological parent and affects portraits. Graphical culture generally has no direct effect on gameplay, but can help you determine who is a "hidden cuckoo bastard". This can be useful if you have the intrigue focus and hope to revoke a title.

There are three animal graphical cultures that have a game technical effect. Graphical bears and dragons can always eat prisoners, with fewer penalties compared to other characters. Graphical horses have a special option in the spouse horse gift event, which makes their spouse their lover. Graphical horses can also receive a random event where they follow a prophecy to climb a mountain, potentially giving them a powerful permanent modifier or artifact.

Province culture[edit | edit source]

Every county in the game has a culture representing the major culture there. A mismatch between holder culture and province culture increases revolt risk. A ruler who would rather deal with more difficult vassals over peasant rebellions can choose to land vassals who share the conquered territory's culture.

For tribes, a culture mismatch also reduces demesne income and levies. To compensate, tribal rulers can assign their steward to the "settle tribe" job, one of the easier ways to change the culture of a province. Feudal and republican rulers get no penalties if they hold tribes in same-culture provinces.

A province with no holdings (i.e., a nomadic province) always has the culture of its owner.

Culture and conquest[edit | edit source]

Most CBs set a new administration penalty on holdings that change owners, reducing taxes and severely reducing levy reinforcements. The duration of this penalty depends on culture and religion difference. Holdings that do not change owners, but merely have a new liege, do not get this penalty.

Claim wars and invasions can set a hidden conquest culture on a conquered title of county rank or higher. For example, a Norman conquest of England might set England's conquest culture to Norman, reducing native vassals' opinion of Norman lieges (-20 Foreign Conquerer). This penalty can be removed by replacing vassals with new ones who share your culture, or by converting to the native culture (or any other culture).

One of the benefits of the conquest culture flag is that it increases chances of Province Culture Conversion. While Strong and Weak Claims wars grant the flag, Pagan and Muslim Conquest do not.

Combat and the 3 Culture Bonuses[edit | edit source]

The cultural bonuses for (1) retinues can stack with the bonuses for (2) cultural buildings, and can be further augmented by the (3) commander specific tactics, also driven by culture.

There are unit types, and there are 2 types of cultural bonuses that can apply to unit types:

(1) Cultural retinue bonus that applies to specific retinue armies when raised, which is based on ruler's culture at the time the retinue are raised.

(2) Cultural building bonus that applies to all units of that type in that realm holding, which is based on *current* province culture. If a cultural building is built in the realm capital, retinue army units can also receive this bonus.

If both of the above bonuses are applicable to the same type of unit, the 2 different bonuses can stack on retinues in the realm capital -- even if the cultures triggering the bonuses are different.

(3) Finally, there's a third type of culture impact that can improve combat performance: there are specific tactics that can be triggered based on the composition of the flank AND the culture of flank commander. This commander could be a third culture.

Character conversion[edit | edit source]

Every character will be born with the culture of their father if born from a patrilineal marriage or a concubine, or their mother if born from matrilineal marriage or out of wedlock. With very few exceptions, the only way to change this is via the child's guardian.

By education[edit | edit source]

If a guardian owns land or has the same culture as his liege, he has a decent chance to change his ward's culture.

The mean times to happen are as follows:

Guardian traits
Diligent and Gregarious 30 months
Diligent or Gregarious 60 months
Diligent and Shy 120 months
Slothful and Gregarious
Slothful or Shy 240 months
Slothful and Shy 480 months

As you can see, a culture change happens about 50% of the time if the guardian has no traits modifying the chance, as a child generally has a guardian for 10 years. If the guardian is diligent and/or gregarious, it becomes far more likely, as the normal distribution is then centered at 2.5 or 5 years; on the other hand, if the guardian is shy and/or slothful, culture change becomes quite unlikely.

So if you want to change the culture of your child, you should assign a guardian of the desired culture, in a court with a ruler of the desired culture, who has the diligent and/or gregarious trait.

If the DLC icon Conclave.pngConclave DLC is active, only(?) the Heritage childhood focus can change a child's culture (and religion) to the educator's.

Convert to capital culture[edit | edit source]

When Rajas of India is not enabled, a randomly fired event gives rulers a chance to convert to their capital's culture.

With Rajas of India.pngRajas of India, rulers have a decision to convert to the culture of their capital province. The decision costs 500 prestige. Vassals cannot use the decision if they have the same culture as their liege.

Province conversion[edit | edit source]

Every county has a culture at the start of the campaign, and this culture can be changed over time.

Spread from adjacent province[edit | edit source]

The most common event can trigger when a character has a county in his demesne not of his culture, but of his religion, and it borders at least one other province of the character's culture that is owned by a character (which could be the very same character) of the ruler's culture. Thus, it is near impossible to spread any culture to islands with this event, as they cannot possibly border a county of your culture unless it was present at game start.

As long as the preconditions are met, the speed depends primarily upon a single factor: the ruler's stewardship, and the mean time to happen is as follows:

Ruler stewardship MTTH to convert province to adjacent culture
0-1 506.25 years
2 337.5 years
3 225 years
4 150 years
5-8 100 years
9-10 75 years
11-12 56.25 years
13-14 42.1875 years
15+ 31.67 years

With DLC icon Reaper's Due.pngThe Reaper's Due, Province Depopulation now also reduces the MTTH. The neighbor provinces from which the culture "spreads" now also needs to not be Depopulated to allow the event to fire.

Depopulation Level MTTH Optimal MTTH
1 75 years 23.7525 years
2 50 years 15.835 years
3 25 years 7.9175 years

As you can see, as long as a character has high stewardship, he can convert counties to his culture rather quickly. While controlling depopulation is a little more tricky as it equals managing epidemics spreads, it gives an equally powerful reward. The conquest culture flag, which is conferred upon invading a province with the right CB as seen above, finally provides a 0.75 modifier, putting the final optimal MTTH to 5.9381 years.

Conversion to conquest culture[edit | edit source]

Some types of wars set a "conquest culture", allowing conversion to that culture even if there are no adjacent provinces of that culture. Like the event above, its MTTH is decreased with high stewardship, province depopulation, and steward mission to administer the realm.

CBs that use vassalize_or_take_under_title usurp and set conquest culture on counties that cannot be vassalized, such as counties owned by rulers who also control land elsewhere:

  • Holy War (which helpfully refuses to vassalize infidels unless the attacker is Muslim)
  • Most CBs that target all land within a de jure title

CBs that use gain_all_occupied_titles usurp and set conquest culture on occupied counties:

  • Sanctioned Invasion
  • Tribal Invasion
  • Prepared Invasion
  • Nomad Invasion
  • Major revolts (Heretic Revolt, Religious Revolt, Liberation Revolt, Rise of the Shia Caliphate, Decadence Invasion)

The following CBs explicitly set conquest culture on the disputed title, allowing conversion of only the holder's demesne provinces:

  • All claim wars set it on the claimed title(s), using the attacker's culture
  • Crusades, using the winner's culture (often the most participating attacker)
  • Sanctioned Invasion
  • Decadence Invasion

Other CBs might not set conquest culture. For example, Border Dispute wars and Pagan County Conquest do not set it. Conquest culture can be seen in-game only with debug tooltips (charinfo console command). It can however be inferred from the "-20: Foreign Conqueror" opinion from native vassals toward any liege of the conquest culture.

Steward mission[edit | edit source]

Tribal rulers can send their steward to Settle Tribe in demesne provinces for cultural conversion, the base MTTH for the conversion is 50 years. (Tripled if the ruler is a count) AI rulers do not send their stewards on this mission.

The speed of the conversion primarily depends on the steward's stewardship skill, and the mean time to happen is as follows:

Steward stewardship MTTH to convert province
0-1 122.07 years
2 97.66 years
3 78.13 years
4 62.5 years
5-8 50 years
9 37.5 years
10 28.13 years
11 21.09 years
12 15.82 years
13+ 11.87 years

With DLC icon Monks and Mystics.pngMonks and Mystics DLC, rulers can send their steward to Administer Realm to increase the speed of cultural conversion of Spread from adjacent province or Conversion to conquest culture in demesne provinces.

The effect of the steward's mission to Administer Realm is as follow:

Steward stewardship MTTH multiplier
0-9 0.95
10+ 0.75

DLC icon Reaper's Due.pngProsperity event[edit | edit source]

A province that has prosperity level 2 may get an event allowing the ruler to fix its culture for 100% of yearly income. Doing so also converts the province's religion and removes the nomad agitation modifier, if relevant.

The province must be the ruler's crown focus province. The event is more frequent with high stewardship skill and high learning skill.

The base mean time to happen for the event is 40 years. (Doubled if the ruler is not independent) The optimal MTTH of the event is 13.9471 years. (Independent ruler with 18+ stewardship, 18+ learning, Smart , Diligent , Architect or Administrator or Scholar or Gardener , and at least a level 3 education trait on stewardship, diplomacy, or learning)

Melting pots[edit | edit source]

There are special events allowing some cultures to give rise to new ones, and allowing these new cultures to spread quickly within the old ones. If certain conditions are met, human players can convert themselves and some of their courtiers by right-clicking on their character portrait and selecting the Convert to new culture decision.

  • Norse splits into several cultures starting in 950.
    • Province flipping stops if the top liege is Norse and holds either an empire or multiple kingdoms (it doesn't matter which ones) or if the province owner's head of religion is of Norse culture.
    • Ruler flipping stops if the top liege is Norse and controls Uppland (Sweden), Akershus (Norway), and Sjaelland (Denmark).
    • Provinces can flip back to Norse after 1150.
    • Norse does not suffer 'foreigner' penalties with its child cultures.
  • Norman is formed if a Norse ruler owns a Frankish, Occitan or Breton province.
  • English is formed if a Norman ruler owns an Anglo-Saxon province in the region of England after 1100.
  • Lombard (flips to Italian): Lombard rulers and provinces exist until well after the 1066 start date. They are MUCH more common in 769, however. MTTH reduced to 30% of original time if province owner is Latin culture group.
  • Dutch culture is formed by event from Frankish, Frisian, or Saxon provinces in the duchies of Holland, Gelre, Brabant, and Flanders. MTTH halved for all 3 cultures if province owner is Dutch.
  • Many cultures only appearing in the 769 DLC icon Charlemagne.png Charlemagne and/or 867 Dlc icon the old gods.png Old Gods start dates:
    • DLC icon Charlemagne.png Dlc icon the old gods.png Visigothic splits up into Castillian, Catalan, Occitan, or Andalusian unless controlled by a powerful Visigoth ruler (emperor or multi-king) or if province owner's head of religion is Visigothic (the province himself owner need not be Visigothic, only his religious head). There is a province-based event to flip in 850. Will become Castillian, Catalan or Occitan if province is non-Muslim, specific culture is selected by region. A province owner of the new culture for that region halves MTTH. Will become Andulasian if province is Muslim, and in region custom_andulasia. A province owner of the Arabic culture group halves MTTH.
    • DLC icon Charlemagne.png Dlc icon the old gods.png Suebi flips to Portuguese, if non-Muslim. Portuguese province owner halves MTTH.
    • DLC icon Charlemagne.png Saxon flips to German (or Dutch) once Widukind rebellion has happened, unless controlled by a powerful Saxon ruler or if both province owner and his head of religion are Saxon (flips to Dutch if in the duchies of Holland, Gelre, Brabant, and Flanders). MTTH halved if province owner is German.
    • DLC icon Charlemagne.png Frankish flips to French, or Dutch if in the duchies of Holland, Gelre, Brabant, and Flanders. To flip to French, the province owner must have either Frankish culture or any culture from the Latin group. A province owner with Latin culture group halves MTTH. The player conversion decision is titled "Embrace the Carolingian Renaissance".
    • DLC icon Charlemagne.png Pictish flips to Scottish unless controlled by a powerful Pictish ruler (emperor or multi-king) or if province owner is Pictish
    • DLC icon Charlemagne.png Frisian (flips to Dutch if in the duchies of Holland, Gelre, Brabant, and Flanders). MTTH halved if province owner is Dutch.
    • DLC icon Charlemagne.png Ilmenian, Severian, Volhynian merge into Russian when ruler is either:
      • not an unreformed pagan OR
      • not of East Slavic or Finno-Ugric culture OR
      • already Russian

Stoics: Civilize Province[edit | edit source]

Members of the Stoic Intelligentsia (the monastic order for Hellenics) may convert a county's culture by spending devotion.

Tactics[edit | edit source]

(Without Conclave) If you want to change your child's culture, assign a guardian of that culture with the diligent and/or the gregarious trait. The guardian must be a ruler or in a court with the same culture. You can find appropriate guardians by right-clicking any character of the culture, selecting "show character relations", selecting "my culture", and typing "diligent" or "gregarious". With Conclave, use the Heritage childhood focus.

Assign high-stewardship characters of your culture as counts on the edge of your culture. They'll rapidly change the culture to their own, getting rid of the revolt risk.

Try to have a single county per character. As the culture change event fires on a character level, a single character owning more than one county makes it less likely to happen on a per-county level. This also ensures that your vassals are weakened, and unlikely to challenge your rule.

Try to have your vassals belong to your culture, as you'll get lower revolt risk and avoid the foreigner opinion penalty. Vassals with foreign cultures and located far away from your capital are much more likely to start independence factions.

Prioritize conquering same-culture provinces over provinces of a different culture. Prioritize same culture-group over different culture groups. You'll get less severe penalties that way.

Cultures and succession/ government type[edit | edit source]

  • Under Horse Lords.pngnomadic succession, having a different culture from the present head of the clan will disqualify a dynast from succession.
  • Non-Celtics will no longer be able to use Tanistry succession once they inherit, unless they have a Holy Fury.pngbloodline that allows tanistry.
  • A culture from the Tibeto-Burman culture group is required for Rajas of India.pngDlc icon the old gods.pngJade Dragon.pngMonastic Feudalism.
  • Jade Dragon.pngChinese Imperialism requires Khitan, Tangut, or Jurchen culture or Chinese culture group. Upon inheritance, the successor will be given the chance to convert if their culture is not "correct".

List of Cultures[edit | edit source]

Note: the order is the one from 00_cultures.txt

Culture Culture Group Base group ethnicity Base ethnicity Notes Code
Norse North Germanic westerngfx norsegfx
  • Norse culture in Scandinavia can split up by event between years 950 and 1150. This is prevented if top liege is Norse emperor or multi-king or if religious head is Norse.
  • May raise Runestones, even if not Germanic religion.
  • Seafaring - receives 90% discount to raised ship levies.
  • Independent dukes are called petty kings
  • Only Norse can raid if religion and government type do not allow raiding.
Swedish swedish
Norwegian norwegian
Danish danish
German Central Germanic westerngfx germangfx german
Lombard Converts to Italian if in de jure Italy, Sicily, or Sardinia and Corsica lombard
Frankish Converts to French (except in Frisia) old_frankish
Suebi Converts to Portuguese if in de jure Galicia or Portugal and owner is non-Muslim suebi
English West Germanic westerngfx englishgfx Created by events if Norman ruler controls Anglo-Saxon province in the region of England after year 1100. english
Anglo-Saxon saxongfx Independent dukes are called petty kings saxon [sic]
Saxon Converts to German once Widukind rebellion has happened (which won't happen if Saxony remains independent of the Franks). old_saxon
Frisian Converts to Dutch if in de jure Frisia frisian
Dutch germangfx Frankish, Saxon or Frisian provinces in de jure Frisia flip to Dutch dutch
French Latin westerngfx frankishgfx frankish [sic]
Norman normangfx Created by event if Norse ruler controls Frankish, Occitan or Breton province

Seafaring - receives 90% discount to raised ship levies

Italian italiangfx Initial culture of rome - Greater likelihood of being elected to College of Cardinals. italian
Occitan trueoccitangfx occitan
Roman romangfx Can be restored by decision. Blind characters cannot inherit. roman
Dalmatian dalmatiangfx Blind characters cannot inherit. dalmatian
Outremer outremergfx Can be formed by decision. outremer
Sardinian italiangfx sardinian
Basque Iberian occitangfx italiangfx Enables Absolute cognatic gender law. basque
Castilian southerngfx castillan [sic]
Catalan catalan
Portuguese portuguese
Visigothic Converts to Castillian, Catalan, Occitan or Andalusian depending on de jure kingdom and owner religion visigothic
Arberian Byzantine easterngfx byzantinegfx Can castrate or blind prisoners via decision. Blind characters cannot inherit. Can also use "Restore Byzantium" decision. arberian
Armenian byzantinegfx armenian
Greek byzantinegfx greek
Alan easternslavicgfx alan
Georgian byzantinegfx georgian
Assyrian persiangfx assyrian
Coptic byzantinegfx coptic
Gothic crimeangfx crimean_gothic
Irish Celtic westerngfx celticgfx Enables Tanistry succession law.

Independent dukes are called petty kings.

Scottish scottish
Pictish pictish
Welsh welsh
Breton breton
Finnish Finno-Ugric easterngfx ugricgfx finnish
Sami lappish
Estonian ugricbaltic
Komi komi
Khanty khanty
Nenets samoyed
Mordvin mordvin
Meshchera meshchera
Lettigallian Baltic easterngfx ugricgfx lettigallish
Lithuanian lithuanian
Prussian prussian
Turkish Altaic turkishgfx turkishgfx

All Altaic cultures can raid. All Altaic cultures can use Tribal Invasion CB if Pagan, and either Tribal government or Elective Gavelkind succession.

Mongol, Khitan and Jurchen (Horde cultures) are restricted to Agnatic succession. Without Horse Lords, Horde cultures can use Tribal Invasion if non-Christian.

Horse Lords.pngMongols can use Ultimogeniture even without following an organized religion.

Mongols can also use the "Become Genghis Khan" decision.

Khazars: Radhanite Quarter available for Silk Road Trade Posts

Turkish, Karluk and Khitan use dynasty name as realm title.

Khitan and Jurchen can use the "Adopt Chinese Imperialism" decision

Pecheneg pecheneg
Cuman cumangfx cuman
Khazar turkishgfx khazar
Bolghar bolghar
Avar avar
Karluk cumangfx karluk
Kirghiz kirghiz
Uyghur uyghur
Mongol mongolgfx mongol
Khitan chinesegfx khitan
Jurchen jurchen
Bedouin Arabic muslimgfx arabicgfx Uses dynasty name as realm title. bedouin_arabic
Berber berbergfx Uses dynasty name as realm title.

Can always raid for loot. Seafaring - receives 90% discount to raised ship levies.

Levantine levantinegfx Uses dynasty name as realm title. levantine_arabic
Egyptian levantinegfx egyptian_arabic
Andalusian berbergfx andalusian_arabic
Russian East Slavic easterngfx easternslavicgfx russian
Ilmenian Converts to Russian if owner is not an unreformed pagan, not East Slavic or Finno Ugric, or is already Russian ilmenian
Severian severian
Volhynian volhynian
Pomeranian West Slavic easterngfx westernslavicgfx pommeranian [sic]
Bohemian bohemian
Polish polish
Slovien slovieni [sic]
Croatian South Slavic easterngfx croatsouthslavicgfx croatian
Serbian serbsouthslavicgfx serbian
Vlach serbsouthslavicgfx romanian
Bulgarian serbsouthslavicgfx bulgarian
Bosnian croatsouthslavicgfx bosnian
Carantanian serbsouthslavicgfx carantanian
Hungarian Magyar easterngfx magyargfx
  • Can use Tribal Invasion if Pagan, and either Tribal government or Elective Gavelkind succession.
  • Can always raid for loot.
  • Dynasty name first.
Persian Iranian muslimgfx persiangfx Uses dynasty name as realm title. persian
Sogdian Independent dukes are called petty kings. sogdian
Tocharian tocharian
Kurdish Uses dynasty name as realm title. kurdish
Afghan afghan
Baloch baloch
Saka Independent dukes are called petty kings. saka
Ethiopian East African muslimgfx africangfx Independent dukes are called petty kings. ethiopian
Somali somali
Nubian nubian
Daju Independent dukes are called petty kings. Can always raid for loot. daju
Kanuri Central African muslimgfx westafricangfx kanuri
Hausa hausa
Zaghawa zaghawa
Mandé West African muslimgfx westafricangfx manden [sic]
Soninke soninke
Songhay songhay
Nahua Mesoamerican mesoamericangfx mesoamericangfx Horde culture: can use Tribal Invasion if not Christian (or if Pagan, and either Tribal government or Elective Gavelkind succession, with Horse Lords installed) restricted to Agnatic gender law. Can always raid for loot. nahuatl
Ashkenazi Israelite easterngfx byzantinegfx No provinces have these cultures, but courtiers with them appear by event.

Radhanite Quarter available for Silk Road Trade Posts

Sephardi sephardi
Bengali Indo-Aryan indiangfx indiangfx Uses dynasty name as realm title bengali
Oriya oriya
Assamese assamese
Hindustani hindustani
Gujarati gujurati
Panjabi panjabi
Rajput rajput
Sindhi sindhi
Marathi marathi
Sinhala sinhala
Nepali bodpagfx Independent dukes are called petty kings. Can always raid for loot. nepali
Tamil Dravidian southindiangfx southindiangfx Uses dynasty name as realm title tamil
Telugu telugu
Kannada kannada
Bödpa Tibeto-Burman bodpagfx bodpagfx
  • Dynasty name first.
  • Can always raid for loot.
  • Independent dukes are called petty kings.
  • If religion is Bön or Buddhist, can adopt Monastic Feudal government
  • Tangut can use the "Adopt Chinese Imperialism" decision
Tangut tangut
  • Dynasty name first.
  • Can always raid for loot.
  • Independent dukes are called petty kings.
  • If religion is Bön or Buddhist, can adopt Monastic Feudal government
  • Enables Absolute cognatic gender law.
Sumpa sumpa
Han Chinese chinesegfx chinesegfx
  • Dynasty name first
  • Can castrate prisoners via decision.
  • After an Invasion of China, dynasty is more likely to remain in power.
  • Can use the "Adopt Chinese Imperialism" decision.
Horse Horse horsegfx horsegfx Can be created through the Conclave or The Reaper's Due version of the events where a Lunatic ruler appoints his horse the realm chancellor or Court Physician.
  • +10 Clan Sentiment
  • +20 Mongol Opinion
Cat Cat catgfx catgfx Can be created through the absurd "Mittens the Spymaster" event chain, for a Lunatic ruler who has a pet cat
  • +25% Fertility
  • -5 Vassal Opinion
  • +20% Murder Plot Power
Bear Bear beargfx beargfx bear
Hedgehog Hedgehog hedgehoggfx hedgehoggfx
  • Can always raid for loot
  • +25% Fertility
  • +20% Plot Power Defense
Duck Aves duckgfx duckgfx
  • Can always raid for loot
  • +25% Fertility
  • +20% Siege Speed
Dog Canidae doggfx doggfx
  • +25% Fertility
  • +5 General Opinion
Elephant Proboscidea elephantgfx elephantgfx
  • +2 Learning
  • -25% Fertility
  • +2 Health
  • -20% Plot Power Defense
  • +10 Personal Combat Skill
Dragon Drachidae dragongfx dragongfx
  • Can always raid for loot.
  • +10% Demesne Income
  • -50% Fertility
  • +4 Health
  • -10 General Opinion
  • +30 Personal Combat Skill
  • Can burn prisoners
  • Can eat prisoners (graphical culture only) without incurring a "Crazy Cannibal" penalty modifier
Red Panda Panda redpandagfx redpandagfx
  • Vassal Opinion +5
  • +10% Army Morale
  • -15% Fertility

Powerful cultures[edit | edit source]

You might want to convert to one of these powerful cultures, especially if you have a sprawling empire and most of your vassals will consider you a foreigner no matter what you choose.

Retinues are listed here if they are better than the mix of defence and shock for dealing with mixed levies.

Before jumping the gun with retinues, check the old thread at PI forums https :// for latest known comprehensive analysis of retinues in general and cultural ones in particular. There's a lot more to retinues than unit's base strength and numbers, and most retinues that look strong at first glance reveal themselves to be shamefully inefficient once troop composition and flank tactics are taken into account.

Also, perhaps more importantly, mind your location. Changing culture of the land itself in not an easy process and the penalty of not matching the culture of the lands you hold (less levies, less taxes, no access to cultural buildings) often outweighs the advantages of a different culture. Also, as a rule of thumb, evaluation of cultural retinues assumes that you have the appropriate cultural buildings in your capital. If your capital does not share that culture (and thus cannot support those buildings) your new retinues will end up being notably worse than expected. Fortunately, generic ones are always a solid backup choice.

Culture Succession allowed Warfare advantages Other
Han (Chinese) Castration
(to disqualify)

Superior leadership traits Way of the Dragon.pngWay of the Dog.pngWay of the Tiger.pngWay of the Leopard.png

  • Can adopt Chinese Imperial government
  • +1 monthly grace (if same culture as Chinese emperor. Same religion gives additional +1)
  • After an Invasion of China, dynasty is more likely to remain in power
Byzantine (group) Castration or blinding
(to disqualify)
  • Blind or castrate prisoners:
    • Blind prisoners to reduce their health and whomp them in duels.
    • Castrate prisoners to prevent them from inheriting titles or having children. This has many uses!
    • Either type of mutilation makes AI unwilling to support them as faction claimants.
  • Primary culture group of one of the largest de jure empires. Any character of Byzantine culture and Christian or Hellenic religion who wholly controls the de jure Kingdom of Thrace can Restore Byzantine Empire should it cease to exist.
  • Two of four the best retinues (or compositions) available. Poor pursuit though.
Scottish Tanistry
  • Heavy Infantry defense bonus from cultural building gives you the best feudal levies in the game.
  • Ireland in 1066 is one of the easiest starts in the game.
  • At earlier dates, Ireland is tribal so you can choose to progress towards either feudalism or merchant republic.
East Slavic (group)
  • Volhynian, Severian, and Ilmenian can all flip to Russian, which is required to unlock the "Russkaya Pravda" achievement.
  • Ilmen and Kiev are well-positioned to reform the Slavic faith.
Mongol Agnatic Only
  • Horde culture: can use Tribal Invasion if Pagan, and either Tribal government or Elective Gavelkind succession.
  • Can always raid for loot.
Altaic (group)
  • Invasion culture: can use Tribal Invasion if pagan, and either Tribal government or Elective Gavelkind succession.
  • Can always raid for loot.
  • Jurchen has access to strong 175 LC + 75 HC Retinues
Khazar (Altaic)
  • Radhanite Quarter on silk road trade posts
Jurchen (Altaic)
  • Can adopt Chinese Imperial government
Khitan (Altaic)
  • Can always raid for loot.
  • Gets free shipyards by event in year 800.
  • In early starts, most Germanic pagans are Norse.
  • In early starts, most of Scandinavia is Norse.
  • Runestones (until 1150)
Arabic (group)
  • Very strong against Mongol invasion and nomads
  • Excels at assaulting holdings.
  • Berbers can always raid for loot
  • Bedouin, Egyptian and Levantine cultures feature Camel Warrior retinue, one of the best retinues (or compositions) in the game. It's in the same retinue cap efficiency tier as the pikemen, but provide slightly better use of supply limit and, unlike the pikemen, do not suffer from the low pursuit efficiency.
  • Camel cavalry unit is in unique strategic position as it is excluded from most terrain effects. Which, depending on circumstance, could be a boon or a curse. They are notably stronger in deserts, but aside from that they don't seem to care much where they fight - be it a mountain defence or a straight crossing attack, they always give the same results.
Pictish Tanistry
  • Light infantry with Feint tactic is strong against feudals
  • Supply limit prevents them from being effective in late game
Breton Tanistry
  • Jousting Lists cultural building adds heavy cavalry to levies immediately, whereas Stables IV requires Castle Infrastructure IV.
  • Can flip to Norman
  • Can flip to English in the region of England
  • Can flip to Norman
Tibetan Absolute cognatic (some)
  • Tibetan LI+LC retinue guarantees Raid tactic
  • Gompa Monastery boosts castle levy size
  • Can always raid for loot.

Console commands[edit | edit source]

There are a couple of console commands that can help to force culture change:

  • "culture <Character ID> <Culture>" - Changes the culture of the targeted character (use the charinfo function to find a character's ID number).
  • "event 55000 <Province ID>" - Will convert the province's culture to the culture of the county's owner. Note that <Province ID> corresponds to the numerical "ID" number listed in the chart on the Provinces page.
  • "event 55001 <Province ID>" - Brings in settlers.
  • "event 925 <Character ID>" - Converts the county where the targeted character is located to the culture of their liege.

See also[edit | edit source]

Personal attributes