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Alert technology.png Technology represents the military, economic and cultural knowledge of a province.

A county will have a progress level ranging from 0 to 8 for each of the different technologies, and these give a variety of bonuses. Technologies can have decimal increments and give partial effects at intermediate levels.

Rulers of duke-rank and higher (except Horse Lords.pngnomads) produce technology points, which may be invested to increase technology in the capital province. In addition, technology spreads automatically from high- to low-technology provinces.

The effects of cultural technology are determined by technology levels in one's capital province. Military and economic technology are applied province-by-province, except for military organization, siege technology, and construction, which are also based on the capital's technology.

Much like construction, technology is a long-time prospect. However, unlike construction, making progress in technology takes decades, and the effects are often small in comparison. On the flip side, researching technology which allows you to construct buildings have a relatively large impact.

List of technologies[edit | edit source]

The Technology advancement screen (V. 3.2)

There are in total 18 different technologies, six for each major area: Military, Economy, and Culture. The effects are as follows:

Military.png Military[edit | edit source]

  • Infantry:
    • increases the morale of Light infantry , Archers , Heavy infantry , and Pikemen by +5.0% (+40% total at level VIII) and defense by +7.5% per level (+60% total at level VIII).
  • Cavalry:
    • increases the morale of Light cavalry , Heavy cavalry , Horse archers , War elephants , Camel cavalry by +5.0% per level (+40% total at level VIII) and defense by +7.5% per level (+60% total at level VIII).
  • Skirmish Techniques:
    • increases the attack of Light cavalry , Archers , Horse archers , and Camel cavalry by +7.5% per level (+60% total at level VIII), and "the chance of Flank leaders choosing better skirmisher tactics increases".
  • Melee Techniques:
    • increases the attack of Heavy infantry , Pikemen , and Heavy cavalry by +7.5% per level (+60% total at level VIII), and "the chance of Flank leaders choosing better melee tactics increases".
  • Siege Equipment:
    • increases offensive siege speed, and decreases defensive siege speed, by +12.5%/level (+100% total at level 8)
  • Military Organization:
    • +12.5% supply limit (everywhere) per level.
    • +2.5% morale per level.
    • +12.5% land organisation per level.
    • +100% Retinue cap per level.
    • level IV and above remove pagan defensive attrition.

Economy.png Economy[edit | edit source]

  • Castle Infrastructure:
    • unlocks most castle buildings.
    • +6.2% Castle tax income per level (+50% total at level VIII).
    • Level I unlocks level III and IV tribe fort buildings (required to upgrade to castle unless holder of the Empire of Russia).
  • Cities and Temples
    • unlocks most town and church/temple buildings.
    • +5.0% town and church tax income per level (+40% total at level VIII).
    • Level I unlocks level III and IV tribe town buildings (required to upgrade to city).
  • Improved Keeps:
    • unlocks keep and fortification buildings. Note that some buildings require walls of a certain level to be built first before they can be constructed.
  • Trade Practices:
    • unlocks Port buildings.
    • Trade Practice I required to upgrade a tribe to a Dlc icon the republic.pngmerchant republic.
    • +7.5% trade post income per level.
    • Trade post cap adjusted by -66.7%, -33.3%, 0%, +10%, +20%, +30%, +40% and +50% per level.
  • Construction:
    • reduces construction time and cost by -3.1% per level (-25% at level VIII).
    • unlocks all hospital buildings.
  • Shipbuilding:
    • increases number of galleys with +10% per level.
    • levels I to IV unlock ship-providing buildings.

Culture.png Culture[edit | edit source]

  • Noble Customs:
    • increases opinion of feudal vassals by +3 per level.
    • Noble Customs I required to upgrade a tribe to a castle.
  • Popular Customs:
    • increases opinion of burghers by +3 per level.
  • Religious Customs:
    • increases opinion of clergy by +3 per level.
  • Majesty:
    • increases monthly piety and prestige gain by +6.2% level.
    • reduces the Short Reign penalty, by considering the reign +0.62 years per level longer than actual (+5 years at level VIII).
    • Majesty II required for Establish Tributary State CB (Majesty IV if capital is in Europe)
    • Majesty V required for the Imperial Administration law.
  • Tolerance:
    • reduces Wrong Religion and Wrong Culture modifiers by -6.2% per level (max -50% at level VIII).
    • Tolerance III to VI unlocks gender equality laws.
  • Legalism:

Research points[edit | edit source]

Non-nomadic duke-rank and higher rulers generate research points each month in each of the three categories - Military, Economic and Cultural - according to the following formula;

Monthly points = (0.04 *(Learning + Skill) + BuildingBonus) * RankBonus.

where Learning is the ruler's personal learning attribute; Skill is the ruler's military, stewardship or diplomatic attribute, for military, economic and cultural technology, respectively; the RankBonus is 1.0, 1.2, or 1.4 for a duke, king, or emperor, respectively; and BuildingBonus is the sum of all extra points from all special buildings in your demesne plus from count and baron tier vassals. Buildings held (directly or indirectly) by Duke and King tier vassals do not contribute to your BuildingBonus. Church schools produce 0.04 Cultural points per level per month, while universities produce 0.05 economic points per level per month. Advanced hospital buildings also generate technology points.

In addition, the spymaster study technology mission will often trigger an event that rewards 50 points in a random category, while the research missions for the military, economic and religious advisers will less frequently trigger an event that rewards 50 points in the appropriate category. Battles, whether won or lost, generate military points based on duration and the size of each army (as a fraction of total strength).

Some province modifiers, such as those provided by the chinese master engineer or earned through DLC icon Reaper's Due.pngprosperity-booming events, provide a constant stream of technology points. The amount they provide is doubled if the province itself is booming.

The cost to improve technology by one rank is given by the following formula:

Cost = ((100 * Rank) * (1 + AheadPenalty)) * ProgressRemaining

where rank is the rank (from level I to VIII) of the new technology; AheadPenalty is 0.006 for every year the current year is ahead of the 'Base Year' of the technology - this is 800 for level I, 900 for level II, etc.; and ProgressRemaining is the percentage, from 10% to 100%, left to research in the current technology level. For example, suppose the year is 1150 and we want to go from Military Organization level 4.0 to 5.0 in our capital. The Base Year for level V technologies is 1200, so we are 50 years ahead. The cost is (100 * 5) * (1 + 0.006*50) = 650 points. If our capital already had Military Organization at level 4.5, we would only need to spend half as much, or 325 points.

Technology spread[edit | edit source]

Technology spreads between provinces that border each other, as well as between provinces in the demesne of the same ruler even if they do not border each other. The rate of growth depends on the degree of the technology lead in the more advanced province. The spymaster's "study technology" mission also lets technology spread from the target province to the ruler's capital. The other advisors' research missions also increase the speed of spreading, as do the school and university buildings.

The chance of an increase (by one tenth (1/10) of a full level) in a particular technology per year is:

Tech Increase Percentage = (Demesne Bonus + Neighbor Bonus + Trade Post Bonus + Spymaster Bonus) * (1 + Councillor Bonus + Building Bonus) 

Here are the formulas for each bonus:

Demesne Bonus = 6 * TotalDemesneDifference
  • TotalDemesneDifference is the sum of the tech lead in all other demesne provinces. For example, if County A has Light Infantry at 1.0, County B has 1.7, C has 2.0 and D has 1.3, the total difference is (0.7 + 1.0 + 0.3) = 2.0, resulting in a (2.0*6% =) 12% chance of increase in County A per year. Demesne counties that are behind do not increase the rate of spread, but do not penalize it either. TotalDemesneDifference is limited to 5, providing a maximum bonus of 30%.

The maximum Demesne bonus is 30%.

Neighbor Bonus = 6 * TotalNeighborDifference
  • TotalNeighborDifference is, similarly, the sum of the tech lead in all neighboring provinces. Neighbors of different religious groups provide only half of their lead. If a county is both a neighbor and in the same demesne, it counts for both TotalDemesneDifference and TotalNeighborDifference.
Trade Post Bonus = 0.2 * TotalTradePostDifference

Where TotalTradePostDifference is the sum of of the tech lead in provinces that have your trade posts. A 0.20% bonus for a 1.0 tech level difference is all you get. Note: I didn't completely test this one out. I tested it at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.9, 4.0 tech level differences, and with 1 to 15 trade posts. The above formula worked for 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 tech differences and was slightly off at 3.9 and 4.0 tech differences. Example: You have 15 trade posts with 8.0 tech levels in a given technology. Your capitol has 4.0 tech levels in that technology. The Total TradePostDifference would be 60. (15 * 4.0) According to my formula the Trade Post Bonus would be 12%. The game showed 11.7%.

Spymaster Bonus = ((TargetProvinceDifference * 6) Rounded down) *  SpymasterIntrigueSkill * 0.1
  • SpymasterIntrigueSkill applies to a Spymaster using the "Study Technology" mission in a target foreign province.
  • TargetProvinceDifference is the tech difference with the Spymaster's target province.

Note: If the difference in tech levels is only 0.1, you get no bonus from the spymaster.

Councillor Bonus = 0.05 * Councillor's appropriate attribute
  • Councillor Bonus is 0.05 per skill point if the appropriate Councillor is using the Research Tech mission in the province.
Building Bonus = is the sum of the bonuses from buildings in the province:
  • From cities: 0.3 for each level of University
  • From temples: 0.1 and 0.2 for the first and second levels of School
  • From hospitals: 0.25 for each of the Library and Pharmacology Laboratory

Starting technology[edit | edit source]

Different regions and religious groups start with different levels of technology to represent the varying levels of cultural sophistication and achievement present across the world depicted in CKII during the Middle Ages.

The starting levels in 769 are:

Region Military Economic Cultural
Western Sub-saharan Africa 0.1 0.1 0.1
North-western Africa 0.5 1.1 1.1
North Africa 0.75 1.5 1.5
Egypt 1.0 1.5 1.5
East Africa 0.45 0.3 0.6
Eastern Europe 0.2 0.25 0.15
Scandinavia 0.35 0.2 0.1
Steppes 0.3 0.1 0.1
Tarim Basin 0.5 1.0 2.0
Chinese regions 1.25 1.0 2.0
Mongolia 0.5 0.3 0.2
India and Tibet 0.5 1.0 2.0
Western Europe 0.5 0.85 1.0
Italy 0.75 1.0 1.0
British & Ireland 0.5 0.70 0.75
Southern Iberia 0.75 1.2 1.5
Middle East (not including Egypt) 0.5 1.5 1.5
Byzantium 1.2 1.5 1.5

Individual regions will have specific set levels for certain techs within the tech-tree.

Later start dates[edit | edit source]

Each region has a predefined ending technology for the latest possible start, in 1337. For dates in between, technology takes a weighted average of the starting and ending levels.

CurrentTech = StartTech + (EndTech - StartTech) * ((Current Year - 769) / (1337 - 769))).

Region Military Economic Cultural
Western Sub-saharan Africa 3.5 3.5 3.5
North-western Africa 4.0 4.0 4.0
North Africa 4.0 4.0 4.0
Egypt 4.5 4.5 4.5
East Africa 3.5 3.5 3.5
Eastern Europe 3.5 3.5 3.5
Scandinavia 3.5 3.5 3.5
Steppes 3.5 3.5 3.5
Tarim Basin 4.0 5.0 7.0
Chinese regions 4.5 5.5 7.0
Mongolia 4.0 4.0 4.0
India and Tibet 4.0 5.0 7.0
Western Europe (including all Spain) 5.0 5.0 5.0
Italy 5.0 5.5 5.0
Middle East (not including Egypt) 4.5 4.5 4.5
Byzantium 4.5 4.5 4.5

Strategies[edit | edit source]

Key technologies[edit | edit source]

Military tech boosts army effectiveness.

  • Military Organization boosts retinues and supply limit, and removes pagan defensive attrition at level IV.
  • Siege Equipment increases siege speed, a vitally important feature in later dates, when fortresses in most counties have fortification level above 6.0, preventing assaults on them.
  • Tribals can invest in Infantry and Skirmish Techniques as the techs benefits troop types which form the bulk of their armies: Light and Heavy Infantry, and Archers. In the same vein, nomads can invest in Cavalry and Skirmish Techniques.

Economic tech boosts income and enables buildings that increase army size.

  • Castle Infrastructure I is required to build the Stone Hillfort, which is vital for tribal rulers to adopt feudalism.
    • For rank 3 members of the Romuva Holy Fury.pngWarrior Lodge, this tech will make their use of Renown for construction more efficient as the Renown cost remains the same for buildings which cost more in terms of wealth and Piety.
  • Improved Keeps II allows constructing the second level of walls in castles, cities, and temples. These walls are a prerequisite for most military buildings.
  • Trade Practices II and III quickly ramp up the number of allowed trade posts per patrician family. These techs are also important if your realm is near the Silk Road, as you control multiple counties where trade posts can be built.
  • Town Infrastructure II and Construction III enable building Universities in cities and Translation Houses in hospitals, allowing you to generate even more economic technology points.
  • Shipbuilding I provides your first fleet levies (unless you have merchant republics).

Culture tech improves vassal management by enabling new laws and improving opinion.

  • Legalism enables new laws.
  • Majesty V is required for Imperial Administration. (If DLC icon Conclave.pngConclave is inactive, also require Absolute Crown Authority from Legalism V.)

Strategies for the realm[edit | edit source]

  • Conquer a good county and make it your capital. E.g. Rome is often poorly defended; beware of triggering early crusades if you're not Christian.
  • Use council missions to spread tech to your capital. Invite good councilors. Send the spymaster to a location with high tech. Consider having the other councillors use the "study [tech group]" missions, especially while the spymaster is studying technology, since the bonuses are multiplicative.
  • Spread economic tech throughout the realm. Tech spread could be encouraged from the capital by using trade zones, a spread-out demesne, and council missions.
  • Have many duke-rank vassals, since counts do not generate technology points. With viceroyalties, vassals with high stewardship and learning skill could be selected, although opinion and age are usually more important considerations.
  • If Dlc icon sword of islam.pngMuslim and non-nomadic, ignore Religious Customs, as Muslim realms do not have theocracies. If the realm takes in theocratic vassals, convert them or revoke their titles.
  • Remember that Nomads do not generate tech points; the small amounts produced by buildings in their nomadic capital should not be relied upon.

Strategies for research points[edit | edit source]

  • Gain traits that boost multiple attributes such as Diligent , Patient , and Ambitious . See education and DLC icon Way of Life.pngfocus.
  • Inherit research points: arrange for the ruler's heir to rule a duchy before inheriting the throne (this works well with feudal elective or open succession). Conversely, if a vassal duke dies without heirs, the liege inherits their tech points along with their titles and wealth.
  • Let special vassals spend their points in the liege's capital: the player could grant their capital to the Ecumenical Patriarch or a holy order captain who normally holds no counties. Then revoke the county a year later. (If the player rules the Byzantine Empire or Restored Roman Empire, they can use a decision to seize Constantinople or Rome, respectively.)
  • Concentrate research point use on new technologies, since the player will gradually receive the other technologies for free. They can see the spread rate by hovering gears in the Tech view (F5) or by hovering the three icons in the province view.

Technology spread modifier in events[edit | edit source]

Technology spread is a mechanism which allows counties that are behind in technology to catch up, however once their technology is advanced enough there is no additional use to it - meaning, it is possible to avoid taking the "spread modifier" from events at that point.

See also[edit | edit source]

Special holdings